Monthly Archives: April 2013

5.1b Energy in Ecosystems

Data-based Questions: page 179

1) the nanophytoplankton are producers
2) the two primary consumers in the food web are nanozooplankton and the micro zooplankton
3a) the shortest food chain: from bacteria to nanozooplankton
3b) the longest food chain: from nanozooplankton to toothed whale
3c) the species with the most predators are the small fish
3d) the species with the biggest types of prey is the toothed whale
4) the tropic level is tertiary or quaternary


5.1a Communities, Ecosystems

Data-based Questions page 176:
1) the venus fly, ghost orchid, and the euglena are autotrophics
2) the ghost orchid, euglena, and dodder are heterostrophic
3) the organisms euglena and dodder are consumers, and the ghost orchid is a saprotroph.


9.3b Plant Reproduction

1) at the beginning periods, there is low growth, but there is a linear growth
2a) the flowering started during the middle of august
2b) the lengths of the days are the factors that are affecting the growth
3a) there are more plants produced the earlier they are planted
3b) there can be a drought. also, there the factor that affected this greatly is the length of days, which will be altered if they are planted early


9.3a Plant Reproduction

– an embryo plants consists of an embryo root, embryo shoot and cotyledons (one or two)
– seat coat is also called a testa
– there is a small hole is called the micropyle
– seeds move through a process called seed dispersal
– this reduces competition between offspring and parents
– it also helps to spread the species
– the type of seed dispersal depends on the structure of the fruit
– some seeds do not immediately germinate, even if they conditions normally required
– all seeds need water for germination
– because many seeds are dry and water rehydrates their cells
– germination also requires oxygen and warmth
1) 0.5um
2) the dye was not capable enough to reach the embryo
3a) the stain is only on the surface of the cuticle
3b) after fires, it starts to allow water to penetrate and help germination
4) the advantages are the longer length of life, and the embryo


9.2b Plant Transport

– phloem tissue is found throughout plants (stems, roots, and leaves)
– link the parts of the plants that need a supply of sugar and amino acids to the other parts that have a surplus
sources: mature green leaves, green stems
storage organs: storage tissue in germinating seeds, tap roots at the start of the growth
sinks: roots that are growing/absorbing mineral ions
developing food stores: developing fruits, seeds, leaves
– xerophytes are plants adapted to growing in deserts and other dry places
– there are many strategies that can be used by plants to survive in dry habitats

Data- Based Questions pg 128
1) as temperature increases, permeance also increases
2) when the temperature increases, the amount of water absorbed decreases
3a) thickness (um): 1.3
3b) thickness (um): 1.7
4) the higher permeances are at lower thicknesses, as we can see in figure 30, therefore the hypothesis that water permeance of the cuticle is positively affected cannot be supported



Progressive tax is any tax in which the rate increases as the amount of income increases. Furthermore, the richer households pay more than the poorer households. The poorer households pay a less percentage. Regressive tax is a tax that decreases in percentage as income increases. This places a larger burden on lower income households that it does on higher income earners. Proportional tax is any tax in which the rate is constant as the amount of income increases. Richer households or poorer households pay the same amount of tax.

A progressive tax does have it beneficial and harmful effects to households. A progressive tax can be fair because the poorer households have more disposable income, since their tax percentage is less. There is not much of a burden on the richer households because they still have a large amount of money that is disposable. But, this system may be considered unfair to the rich people, since they have no reward for making a high income. Since the poorer households pay less percentage of their tax, it may require them to pay for their own healthcare.

9.2a Plant Transport Systems

– many roots develop hairs
– seedling roots repeatedly develops branches in some plants, to form an extensive fibrous network
– water is absorbed into root cells by osmosis
– because solute concentration inside the roots cells is greater than that in the water in the soil
– concentration of minerals ions can be 100 times or more times higher than those in the soil
– these concentration gradients gradients are established by active transport
– mineral ions can be absorbed by active transport if they contact with appropriate pump protein
– this can occur by mass flow or diffusion
– transpiration is the water loss from excessive water loss and death by dehydration
– stomata are waxy cuticles that cover the epidermes of leaves which reduces transpiration, it also prevents other small molecules (carbon dioxide, oxygen) from passing through
– guard cells are used by stomata to minimize water loss
– light and low carbon dioxide causes stomata to open
– shortage of water causes stomata to close
– rate of transpiration depends on the size, thickness, temperature, state (open/closed) of stomata, of the plant
– adhesion is caused when water is attracted to the cellulose and other substances in the cell wall
– a transpirational pull is when low pressure generates a pulling force that is transmitting through the water in the xylem vessels down the stem to the ends of the xylem in the roots
– cohesion affects the pulling upwards in the xylem vessels
– cohesion is between water molecules
– the structure of xylem vessels allow the transportation of water inside plants effectively
– they are long continuous tubes

Data- Based Questions pg 127
1) the stem clamped start at 17cm3 and fell to 0cm3 in about 1.7 hours
2) after the shoot was removed, the water uptake rate fell
3) when the shoot was removed when the water uptake was 10cm3 and fell to 5cm3
4) the shoot helped a greater uptake in water


9.1 Plant Structure

– meristems are a group of cells that allow plants to grow throughout their lives
– meristems are small and go through the cell cycle repeatedly to produce more cells
– apical meristems are found at the tips of stems and roots
– way that plants support themselves: turgid cells, thickened cellulose wall, xylem tissue
– epidermes: outer layer of cells
– mesophyll: tissue filling most of the leaf inside the epidermes
– vascular tissue: found in the veins of the leaf
– plants use hormones to control the growth of stems and roots
– tropisms are directional growth responses to directional external stimuli (light/gravity)
– phototropism is growth towards light
– auxin is a hormone in the plant that is transported from cell to cell
– angiospermophytes are plants that produce seeds enclosed inside fruits
– angiospermophytes are divided into two large groups: monocotyledons and dicotyledons

Data- Based Questions pg 118
1) the diagrams are of tissue of the plants
2) both the dicotyledon stem and the monocotyledon stem have the epidermes, cortex, vascular bundle , phloem, and the xylem
3) the position of xylem is connected to the phloem in the dicotyledon stem, but is separated in the monocotyledon stem
4) the dicotyledon stem included the cambium (lateral meristem) whereas the  monocotyledon stem does not