Monthly Archives: February 2013

4.4a Transgenic Techniques

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering:
– genetic engineering: group of techniques developed by molecular biologists, which allow genes to be transferred between species
– genetic modification: transfer of genes from one species to another, which helps produce new varieties of crop plant (GM plants), or even animals
– genetic modification has both beneficial and harmful affects
– some biotechnology processes can be natural (asexual reproduction), and some organisms have been produced by genetic engineering

Gene Transfer:
– genes can be transferred from one species to another by many methods
Plasmids: bacteria use the plasmid (small extra circle of DNA) to exchange genes. bacteria naturally absorbs plasmids and ties them into their main circular DNA molecule.
Restriction Enzymes (endonucleases): enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific base sequences; sometimes used to cut open plasmids and also cute out desired genes from larger DNA molecules
DNA Ligase: enzyme that joins together molecules firmly: producing sugar-phosphate bonds between nucleotides

Genetic Modification
–  ex. the transfer of gene for making human insulin
– gene modification in bacteria:
– goats have been genetically modified to secrete anti- thrombin
– sheep genetically have been genetically modified to produce a protein used to treat emphysema


4.4c Cloning & GMOs

The Human Genome Project:
– was a cooperative venture between a variety of independent research groups & Celera Genomics (research company)
– HGP has achieved it’s goal by obtaining a sequence of all the DNA in a human cell
– the estimation of the total number of genes has been reduced from 100,000 to 25,000 protein codons.
– HGP has given knowledge that certain gene sequences are linked to genetic diseases
– HGP stimulated drastic improvements in sequencing technology
: making it possible for sequence in genomes of other organisms
: scientists studying genetic disorders can look for similar DNA in mice
: bioinformatics and pharmcogenomics have emerged
– Bioinformatics: use of computers to store and analyze huge amounts of data being generated by genome sequences
– Pharmocogenomics: links differences in genomic information in different population to any differences in their response to drug treatment

Clones: a group of genetically identical organisms of a group of cells derived from a single parent cell
– Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical babies, naturally, also, identical twins are also genetically identical
– an egg can be fertilized in ‘vitro’ and allowed to develop into a multicellular embryo
– only a certain number of clones can be made this way
Pluripotent: capable of developing into all types of issues
– another method: non-productive cells
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Chapter 14 Questions:
1a) 0 cheetahs were heterozygous for the transferin protein and there are 13 domestic cats
1b) number of alleles in the transferin protein for cheetahs is one and for domestic cats is three
1c) one allele
2) restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA molecules at the specific base sequence and cutting the two strands of DNA molecule at each point
3) therapeutic cloning requires eggs and the embryonic system and will require women to extract eggs from themselves and be treated
5) Asexual reproduction, identical twins,
6a) IV, because it moved further than any other sample
6b) Child II does not share the same alleles as the father
7) A: to copy and amplify fragments is the purpose of the CPR


4.4b DNA Profiling

Polymerase Chain Reaction:
– a technique that can be used to amplify small quantities of DNA
– PCR helps study DNA without having a small sample: PCR can amplify extracted DNA from fossils

Cycle of PCR:
1) denaturing the DNA sample using heat

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2) annealing with a primer selected to match a particular target within the DNA, done at cool temperatures

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3) extension of primer using a DNA polymerase from a bacterium
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The result of this cycle is new DNA strands.

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Gel Electrophoresis
– gel electrophoresis involves separating charged molecules in an electric field
– DNA molecules carry negative charges and so they can be separated by gel electrophoresis

DNA Profiling
– helpful in forensic investigations and paternity tests
– sample of DNA is obtained from known or unknown individual material
– repetitive sections of DNA are copied using the PCR with suitable primers
– DNA is spilt into fragments using restriction enzymes
– fragments are separated using gel electrophoresis
– the pattern of bands is produced and analyzed




This task explores the cultural aspects of English, and Part 1 of our curriculum. My Written Task was based on Bill Bryson’s book Mother Tongue, more specifically, Chapter 5: Where Words Came From. I completed this in a opinionated blog post. I used personal references, such as “I think”, and shared experiences and thoughts. To emphasize this, cultural connections to India’s influence on English, and English’s influence on India were made. Since this is a opinionated blog post, I also included humorous images, joking about the English language. Furthermore, I included hyperlink that I got some facts from. For example, when I gave the short list of English words borrowed from India, I hyperlinked the link to BBC, where the words were found, and to serve the reader with more information if they would like it.
The audience for this blog post, would definitely not be a professional figure, even though this post has interesting and knowledgeable information, it would not suit and fit in in a professional context. Preferably, the audience would be people who are interested in the English language, and how it has, and how it is effecting the world.


Learning Outcomes Topics(s) Course Selection Text Type of Task Title of the Task
1) To show an understanding of the importance of English to the World and in our daily lives.
2) To demonstrate the influence English has on foreign countries, vise versa.
3) To show an understanding of how English can be used to communicate ideas effectively with pu
rpose and meaning.
– The emergence of new vocabulary from the language group
– India to English connections
Part 1: Language in the cultural context Opinionated Blog Post “Where Words Come From”



Bryson, B. (2001). The mother tongue. New York, NY: HarperCollins.


Inflation: an increase in the average price level of goods and services in a nation over time. Deflation: occurs when the average price level of goods and services decreases over time. If a certain goods/services price falls, it does not mean the country is experiencing deflation. Price index: average of prices for a selection of goods and services in a particular nation during a given nation during a given interval of time. A price index can be used to measure the changes in the price level of goods between one period of time and another. The inflation rate is the percentage change in a price index between one period of time and another. It measures the change in the average price of goods and services in a nation over time. The inflation rate can be either positive, negative, or zero. CPI: consumer price index. Demand pull inflation is when too many consumers are chasing too few goods, so the average price of goods and services in a nation rises. Demand pull inflation is illustrated by an outward shift of AD when a nation is at or near it’s full employment of output. Cost push inflation is when costs of production faced by a nation’s producers rise (due to wages, etc) so the nations short run aggregate supply curve shifts to the left and the average price level of the nation’s output rises. Cost push inflation is sometimes accompanied by stagflation: means the economy is stagnating: experiencing zero or negative economic growth. Monetarism is the school of economic thought. It argues that changes in the money supply aimed at affecting aggregate demand will only cause inflation or deflation, but no change in the level of employment in the economy. Monetarism also supports the view that the Phillips curve is vertical and the natural rate of unemployment.

Question #2)

“Low inflation is the main macro economic goal for most western countries. This is because there are many economic costs of high inflation” ( When prices of goods and services increase, many factors are effected, and there is a domino effect. For example, firms that produce potato chips need to buy potatoes, oil, etc to produce it. But if the price of potatoes and oil increase, then the overall price of the packaged potato chips, increase. Furthermore, if the price of labor increases for the potato firm, they are spending a greater sum of their budget. This may lead the firm into confusion about their priorities in the allocation of their money. The business cycle will be effected by the inflation, since economies rise and fall. The increase of prices may effect this cycle. A rise in inflation will decrease the aggregate demand, leading to a slower pace flow of money, and possibly unemployment.

Price stability is a situation where the price does not fluctuate, eliminating inflation and deflation. Price stability has many more benefits compared to inflation or deflation. Price stability can lead to financial stability, to individual households and firms. Price stability is important to households, because it effects the worth of their money and income. When the price of goods and services increase, the households have less money to spend on commodities. If a family goes grocery shopping in 2000, and buy food for a family of four, but goes grocery shopping in 2013, and only have enough money to buy food for three people. This is caused by price inflation. This therefore affects the aggregate demand. Inflation can also affect the unemployment level. Deflation is when prices drop, the producers tend to lose money, since the consumers are paying less for their products.


Structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, and seasonal unemployment are types of unemployment. Structural unemployment is when workers are unable to find work because their skills don’t match what the employers are looking for. This is caused by globalization, or when machines can replace workers in a factory. Frictional unemployment is when people are looking for jobs or getting a new job, which is caused when students who have just exited college, and are looking for a job. Also, workers who are looking for a better job. Seasonal unemployment refer to people who work depending on the seasons, on their preferred time. Some examples are summer jobs, and part time jobs.

Structural unemployment usually has effect for longer than frictional unemployment. In the long term, a country should invest in their education system & training for adults, teaching the necessary skills that will be useful in the future. Farmers, for example, in today’s world, aren’t needed as much as they used to be. This is because they don’t have the updated skills to be more efficient, and are easily replaced by agricultural machines. Therefore, the nation should invest in education and teaching skills to use the farmers as efficiently as the machines. Having some workers that don’t have updated skills, can pull back a countries development and show economic weakness, but the nation can help this by education, etc.

10.3 Gene Linkage & Polygenic Inheritance

Autosomes: chromosomes other than the  X and Y chromosomes (sex chromosomes). Diploid nuclei have two times of autosomes, in humans, there are 22.
Two types of linkage:
autosomal gene linkage: genes are on the same chromosomes
sex linkage: genes are located on the X chromosome
The linkage between pairs of genes in a linkage group is not usually complete and new combinations of alleles are sometimes formed, which happens as a result of crossing over. Recombination: formation of a chromosome of DNA with a new combination of alleles. Recombinant: an individual that has recombinant chromosomes and therefore has a different combination of characters from either of the original parents.
Every gene has a different character, there are also examples of inheritance in which two are more genes affect the same character, having an addictive effect.  Normal distribution: as the number of genes increases, the distribution becomes close to the normal distribution. This is called polygenic inheritance. Polygenic inheritance: two or more genes affecting the same character. An example of polygenic inheritance is the skin color. Skin color variates with the environment, since sunlight stimulates the production of the black pigment melanin in the skin.

Chapter 13 questions:

1a) Autosomes are chromosomes that are not involved with the X and Y chromosomes.  Sex chromosomes are the X and Y chromosomes and determined an individuals gender.
1b) Autosomal linkage are when genes on the same chromosomes. Sex linkage are when genes are on the X and Y chromosomes.


10.2 Dihybrid Cross

Dihybrid cross: inheritance of two genes is investigated together. Mendel performed dihybrid crosses with pure breeds of peas. The first generation all had the dominant allele. When the first generation peas self-pollinated, four phenotypes were created. For the genotype of the first generation, the chance of a gamete containing each allele is 1/2.  The chance of containing two specific alleles is 1/4. The four gametes are SY, Sy, sY, sy. Independent assortment: a theory that the alleles of two genes pass into gametes without influencing each other. The ratio for these predictions are 9:3:3:1. These genes are inherited independently of each other, allowing new combinations of characters to be formed freely.
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Mendel’s work was rediscovered and the mechanism that causes independent assortment of unlinked genes was soon identified. Independent orientation: the direction in which one pair is facing does not affect the direction in which any of the other pairs are facing. If a cell is heterozygous for a gene, one chromosome will carry the other allele. The orientation of the pair of chromosomes will carry the other allele. Random orientation: when the chromosome pairs move, there is a 25 percent chance the two alleles move the to same pole.


Nothing Gold Can Stay

Nothing Gold Can Stay

Nature’s first green is gold,
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf’s a flower;
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leaf.
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day.
Nothing gold can stay.

Robert Frost

This poem consists of an Iambic Trimeter, except last tine, because the pattern can’t be sustained. The structure has a couplet, at the end of the lines. Sounds are important in this poem, with the precision of rhyme and rhythm. The poems meaning is that nothing good ever lasts forever. This is represented in the falling of the leaves, and the connection to time the author makes.

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