Monthly Archives: January 2013

SVN News Report Rationale

English Faux News Rationale

During this last week in Language & Literature, we have been creating a “false” news story and video, based on a documentary we watched in class “Faux Fox News.” Our groups story was about the overload of homework in the IB that causes heavy stress on Canadian Academy students. This story is true, but we have slightly twisted the story, and is biased towards the IB program and the teachers, portraying the students as being victims. This task required us to imitate many techniques Fox News used in our own news report. This task helped us understand how usual news reports are made, and the work that goes behind them, since we were doing almost the exact thing. Also, we noticed how news reports can be really biased, since they usually only show one side of the story, and it depends on the news station on what side they take on. General news reports are viewed by audiences that are interested in current events, and keep up with news stories. In this specific episode, since it is related to the school community, students and teachers will view this report.

Learning Outcomes Topics(s) Course Selection Text Type of Task Title of the Task
1) To show an understanding of techniques used by news organizations to create bias.
2) To show an understanding of the representation of bias in the media particularly that examined in the documentary Outfoxed.
3) To show an understanding of how language can be used to create bias or construct different versions of reality.
Representation in the Media Part 2: Language & Mass Communication News Report “Students Voice News”
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4.3c Genetics

Genetic diseases are usually caused by a recessive allele of a gene, so it only forms in organisms that are homozygous with the recessive allele. If a person is heterozygous, (one allele for the genetic disease & one dominant allele), will not show symptoms of the disease. But these recessive gene can be passed to offspring. These individuals are called carriers. Carrier: an individual that has one copy of recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individual that are homozygous for the allele. Some of the 4000 genetic diseases caused by a gene are: cystic fibrous, phenylkentonuria,Tay-Sachs disease, and Marfan’s syndrome.

Sickle cell anemia is the most common disease in the world. It is caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin B-globin polypeptide’s gene code. When sickle cells return to high oxygen conditions in the lung, the hemoglobin chains break up and the cells return to their normal shape, slowly after the red blood cells circulate. A small change in the gene can have extremely intense consequences.

T. Morgan was a part of a group of geneticists who discovered that Mendel’s experiment was very important in the pattern of inheritance in species. Morgans experiments showed the pattern of inheritance as pea plants:
– two alleles of each gene are present
– these two alleles can be the homozygous or heterozygous
– just one allele is passed onto offspring in gametes
– one allele is usually dominant over another allele

Sex linkage: pattern of the inheritance, where there are differences in genotypes and phenotypes ratios between males and females. (Images Retrieved from: http://www.biologycorner.com/bio2/notes_sexlinkage.html)

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Hemophilia:

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The gender of an offspring is determined at the moment of fertilization, by the chromosome that is carried by the sperm. Part of the Y chromosome has the same sequence of genes as a small part of the X chromosome, which are not found on the chromosome, and the genes found on the remainder of the Y chromosome are not found on the X chromosome are not needed for the development of females. Daughters inherit their father’s X chromosome and sons inherit their his Y chromosome.

Chapter 12 Questions:

1)

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2a)

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Chapter 11 Questions

Question #2

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(Image Retrieved from Wikipedia)

Basic Concepts of a Circular Flow Model:

– in the product market, household are exchanging money payments for the goods and services provided by companies
– Firms buy the factors of production from households in the form of rent, wages, interests, etc.

Money that leaves the market system is called a leakage, whereas the money that enters the market system is called an injection. An example of leakage, is the money withdrawn by the government. The money withdrawn usually is returned to the system when the government spends money on salaries and infrastructure. Imports are leakages, but the money is covered up with exports, injections. Savings are leakages, since the flow of money slows down.  But, the money saved in banks is available to borrowers, who then inject the savings into the market system, as investments.

 

Question #4

Analyse the use of GNP per capita to compare living standards in different countries.

Gross national product is the market value of all the products and services produced in a time period by the labour and capital supplied by the residents of a country. GDP – net income = GNP. GNP measures the citizens individual income, helping to know the countries strengths and areas of improvements. GNP per capita doesn’t indicate the quality of living, the life expectancy, or the literacy rate.

Assess the value of two other measures which might be used to compare living standards.

Life expectancy, literacy rate, and the underground market are not accounted for in the information of GNP. Life expectancy shows the age that the population is living to. It shows the efficiency of the health services and safety, etc. Literacy rate shows the amount of population that are education to a certain level, showing how the country values education. The underground (black) market isn’t taken in account for when calculating GDP or GNP.

4.1 Genes, Chromosomes, Mutations

In the 20th century, Morgan a geneticist, discovered that a group of genes that were all located on the X chromosome of a Drosophila (a fruit fly). Carefully crossing experiments lead to showing that genes were arranged in a linear sequence along the X chromosome. This same pattern has been found in other organisms and species, and they are found in a particular position on one chromosome type. Locus: the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene. Homologous: is when two chromosomes have the same sequence of genes. Homologous chromosomes are not usually identical to each other because of some genes on them, alleles will be different. Allele: one of a number of different types of gene. Genome: the whole of the genetic information of an organism.
The chromosomes of eukaryotes are large enough to be seen with a microscope, because the chromosomes are condensed (thick, dense), by the coiling process. Eukaryote chromosomes: DNA molecules associated with protein.  Histone protein: involved with coiling of the chromosomes, and also in control of the gene transcription. Diploid: two homologous chromosomes, a nucleus that has two sets of chromosomes, and so has two chromosomes of each type. The parent passes on only one copy of each gene onto the offspring, because a gamete only consists of one chromosome of each type. Diploid: gamete,  a nucleus that has one set of chromosomes, and so has one chromosome of each type.

Data- Based Questions (pg 155)
1) Any of the species do not have 13 chromosomes because it is an odd number, meaning it is undergoing meiosis.
2) The dog may not be more complex than the American black bear, but it only has more chromosomes.
3) The size of the genome of species cannot be determined from the number of chromosomes because the state of chromosomes may be altered, changing shape/size, condensing, and being separated.
4) Evolutions shows that chimpanzees are ancestors of humans, yet they have more chromosomes. The chromosomes of the chimpanzees may have altered, where two chromosomes became one.

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4.3a Mendel

Offspring inherit their parents characteristics. Mendel performed experiments on seven different chromosome pairs of pea plants. Mendel allowed the hybrid plants to self-pollinate, their role was both the female and male. The results were expected to have the same phenotype from each parent. Phenotype: characteristics of an organism.  Mendel noticed that his pea plant ratio was 3:1. The hybrid plant, made by crossing one parent having the dominant character with another having the recessive character, always showed the dominant character. Lower letter = recessive character. Upper letter = dominant character. The hybrid plant inherit one factor from each parents, having two factors. One parent only passes either the dominant or recessive character. The factors separate when the female and male gametes are created. This is called segregation. The chance of inheriting a recessive factor is 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4. The change of inheriting two dominant factors is 1/4. The chance of inheriting one dominant and one recessive is 1/2. Therefore, the overall chance of inheriting one or two dominant factors is 3/4, supporting Mendel’s data. This is easily presented in a Punnett Grid.

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(Image retrieved from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_PhPp2bIEv5g/R7Ep6sTjPyI/AAAAAAAAADo/zgEMJj7y73g/s320/heterozygous.jpg)

Data-based Questions (pg 145)

1) Ratio- 198:72, = 2.75 grey:1 albino
2) The albino trait is recessive as the grey trait is dominant
3) G = dominant grey phenotype/ g= recessive grey phenotype
4) The parents phenotypes are grey and albino and the genotypes are G (dominant) and g (recessive). Alleles in the gametes are: G (dominant) and g (recessive). The hybrid phenotype for these mice are grey (dominant). The hybrid genotype is G (dominant) and g (recessive).
5) A mutation in the genes can determine whether the mice had grey fur and black eyes or white fur with red eyes.

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4.2/10.1 Meiosis

Sexual reproduction: method of producing offspring that generates genetic diversity in a species. In eukaryotic organisms, it involves the process of fertilization. Fertilization: union of sex cells, of gametes, usually from two different parents. Fertilization doubles the heredity information from each generation.
Each child has two chromosomes, one from each parent. Diploid: nucleus with two chromosomes of each type. Haploid: nucleus with only one chromosome of each type. Homologous: chromosomes of the same type.

Meiosis: process in which the chromosomes are halved, producing gametes.
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(Image retrieved from: http://learn.uci.edu/)

First Division of Meiosis:
1) Prophase I: cell has chromatid, crossing over occurs
2) Metaphase I: spindle microtubules move homologous pairs to center of the cell
3) Anaphase I: homologous pairs are separated, chromosome moves to the end of the cell
4) Telophase I: chromosomes uncoil, haploid to diploid, cytokinesis occurs

1) Prophase II: chromosomes condense and become visible
2) Metaphase II: chromosomes line up at the equator
3) Anaphase II: chromatids move to opposite poles
4) Telophase II: chromatids opposite poles, nuclear envelope forms, cytokinesis occurs

Errors occur in meiosis when homologous chromosomes fail to separate at anaphase. Non-disjunction: when segregation does not occur for a certain pair of homologous chromosomes. This results in a gamete that has an extra chromosome, or lacks a chromosome. The karyotype of a cell is the number and type of chromosome that is nucleus contains. To find the karyotype, cells are observed during metaphase of mitosis, since their cells are most visible at that time. Karyotype usually come in pairs, as most cells are diploids. Arrangement: smallest to largest, modernly done with a digital micrograph & a computer. Karyotyping is used to find if a fetus has down syndrome or abnormalities. This can be found by two procedures, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling.

When chromosomes are randomly organized in metaphase I, there is a variety in the offspring. For each chromosome pair, there are twice as much as the possible chromosome combination. The crossing over in meiosis increases the genetic variety. In prophase I, the two chromatids of two homologous chromosomes become tightly associated, process called synapsis.

Breaking and rejoining chromatids is a process of crossing over, creating new combinations of alleles. Crossing over creates an X-shape structure, called chiasma. They are formed in prophase I and metaphase I. This helps prevent non-disjunction.

Chapter 11 Questions)

1) Non-disjunction does not occur in metaphase or prophase, but occurs later on in meiosis.
Segregation occurs after anaphase.
Chemical composition does not belong because it does not relate to the sorting of chromosomes.
Sickle cell anemia is not caused by non-disjunction.
2) a) Amniotic fluid. b) Chronic villi.
3)

4)

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5) The first image is Anaphase, and the second image is Telophase.

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Chapter 10 Practice Questions

5a) Oligopolistic markets have higher barriers to enter, whereas monopolistic markets have little and small barriers. In a monopolistic market, there are many firms which often refrains the firm from making abnormal profits. Oligopolistic have fewer firms, less competition, allowing abnormal profits and loss. The monopolistic firm has the ability to change their products to fit their consumers tastes and preferences, whereas the oligopolistic market does not. Firms monopolistic competition are more dependent on the consumer for the prices, where are oligopolistic competition is slightly more independent, depending on if the good is elastic or inelastic.

5b) Collusive oligopoly is an agreement between firms related to prices and output level, and restricting innovation and avoiding extra costs. This helps the firms to reach profit maximization, where MC=MR. Non-collusive oligopoly are when firms do not cooperate, and the firms monitor the actions of the other firms.

Chapter 9 Practice Questions

7a) Monopolists are companies such as Kansai Electric, which have little or no competition. Therefore, the barriers are extremely high to enter into. Since they have no competition, they are price-givers. The people have no other substitute to which they could turn to for a less price. For example, people in Japan have to consume from Kansai Electric, no matter how high the price is. Monopolists do not have to allocate resources effectively, or produce at MC=MR.

7b) Competitive markets have lower barriers compared to monopolies. As explained before, in a monopolists market, consumers have no substitues. But, in a competitive market, consumers have a range of firms they can choose from, to suit their income, and their tastes and preferences. Therefore, competitive markets are more helpful to the consumer compared to the monopolist.

5a) Third degree price discrimination “takes advantage of the fact that different consumer groups have differing price elasticities” Producers separate the groups and charge them the highest price possible. In the book, it explains how business phone need to make phone calls during working hours, therefore, they will pay the price for this to happen. The elderly and younger community who use the phone later on in the day, or weekends, do not have to pay the price. This is how producers get the highest possible amount of money from third degree price discrimination.

5b) Price discrimination for firms increases the profits and revenues. “It is possible that price discrimination will enhance monopoly power over consumers. Deadweight losses may be reduced or eliminated.” Price discrimination will lead consumers to pay more, by taking advantage of the groups they are separated into. Welfare loss is eliminated by price discrimination. In third degree price discrimination, the consumer might be at a gain. For example, ‘happy hour’ at a bar are at unusual times, but the consumers will still pay less. Or, children at a cinema will pay less than an adult would. But more second degree and first degree price discrimination, consumers are mostly at a loss.

Chapter 8 Practice Questions

1a) Perfect competition is a theoretical market. In a perfect competition, the short long equilibrium is where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. Therefore, these two factors effect the equilibrium. In the long run of an perfect competition, the equilibrium is by the competitors in the market. If there are many competitors, the firm will loose money, therefore their equilibrium changes.

1b) Perfect competition is a theoretical market, meaning it doesn’t exist in the real world. In the perfect competition, the barriers are extremely low to enter into, therefore if a firm in a perfect competitive market make money, people will join into this market, resulting in an extremely high number of competitors.This then lowers the marginal revenue for the other firms.