Monthly Archives: October 2012

3.5 & 7.3 DNA Transcription

DNA –transcription–> RNA –translation–> polypeptide
– gene: unit of heredity that consists of a sequence of DNA bases
– heredity: transmission of information from parent to offspring
process to produce a specific polypeptide, using the base sequence of a gene:
– transcription: synthesis of RNA, using DNA as a template. The base sequence of RNA is almost the same as DNA.
– translation: synthesis of a polypeptide, with an amino acid sequence that is determined by a molecule of RNA. The messenger RNA carries the information needed to synthesize a polypeptide.
Types of RNA:
– mRNA: (messenger)
– tRNA: (transfer) helps decoding the base sequence into an amino acid sequence during translation
– rRNA: (ribosomal) part of the structure of the ribosome, where polypeptide is synthesized

Transcription

– mRNA is made
– RNA is single stranded: transcription occurs on one strand
Outline:
– enzyme RNA polymerase binds to the promoter on DNA
– DNA is separated into two strands by RNA polymerase in order to be transcribed
– RNA nucleotides pair with their complementary base
– RNA polymerase forms covalent bonds between nucleotides
– RNA separates from DNA and double helix forms

Details

– RNA polymerase binds at a side called the promoter
– the promoter decides which of the two DNA strands will be transcribed
– RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA and proceeds to catalyze the formation of covalent bonds in the growing RNA transcription
– RNA nucleoside triphosphates can only be added at the 3′
– the transcription grows in the 5′ to 3′ end
– RNA polymerase moves along the DNA
– when the RNA polymerase reaches a termination sequence, it detaches from the DNA and the newly formed RNA is released

Introns and exons

– genes in prokaryotes do not contain introns
– prokaryotes lack molecular mechanisms needed to carry out RNA splicing
– potential problem if eukaryotes genes are transferred to prokaryotes by genetic engineering
– special copies of eukaryotic genes without introns are needed for transfer to prokaryotes

Data-based questions: DNA and RNA structures

1) DNA includes thymine whereas RNA contains uracil. Also, DNA contains deoxyribose whereas RNA just contains ribose.
2) DNA is double stranded and RNA is single stranded
3) 
4) Four similarities between DNA and RNA are:
– adenine, thymine, and guanine

Data-based questions: exons and species complexity

1) 95% of genes in yeast have only 1 exon
2) 5 is the most common number of exons in mammals genes
3) The statement can be supported because the data only shows the exons only, excluding introns. Also, there is no information about the size of the samples.

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3.4 & 7.2 DNA Replication

Semi-conservation replication

– when a cell prepares to divide, the two strands of double helix separate
– these stands will be a guide for new strands
– this results in two DNA molecules
– one strand is complementary to the other
DNA replication process:
– large number of enzymes helped replication
– to gain access to DNA, enzymes has to unwind the helix
– nucleotides with complementary bases are linked by hydrohen bonds to bases on the templates
– DNA polymerase link the phosphate of the newest nucleotide to the sugar of the nucleotide by a covalent bond

DNA replication in prokaryotes

– there are a few differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes regarding DNA replication
– in prokaryotic cells, there is one origin
– in eukaryotic cells, there are many origins
– in replication, each unit added to the nucleic acids is a nucleoside triphosphate
– nucleoside = sugar and a base

Data-based questions: evidence for discontinuous synthesis
1) The sample that was pumped for 30 seconds had higher radioactivity. Also, it has more peaks and falls compared to the sample that was pumped for 10 seconds. The sample that was pumped for 10 seconds was more steady.
2) The sample has 2 high peaks, which shows evidence for the presence of both a leading strand and a lagging strand.
3) DNA ligase is an enzyme that helps the two strands join together. The continuous high peaks shows evidence for the activity of DNA ligase.

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3.3 & 7.1 DNA Structure

Nucleotides & Nucleic acids

– DNA is a polymer of nucleotides
– nucleotides: molecules that consist sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base (nitrogen-containing rise structure)
– nucleic acid: polymer of nucleotides
– a covalent bond links the phosphate of one of the nucleotide to the sugar of the next nucleotide in a polymer
– the sugar is DNA is deoxyribose
– sugar in RNA is ribose
– bases in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine
– bases in RNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil

DNA structure

– nucleotides within each strand are joined by covalent bonds
– alternating sugar and phosphate molecules form a backbone for each strand
– two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases
– adenine (A) is always paired with thymine (T)
– guanine (G) is always paired with cytosine (C)
– two strands are complementary
– this makes self replication easier/capable & serves guidance for the production of RNA

Nucleosomes & supercoiling

– DNA is naked in bacteria
– DNA is associated with proteins in eukaryotes
– most common proteins: histones
– DNA is wound around groups of histones called nucleosomes
– nucleosome: group of eight histone proteins arranged to form a october
– nucleosomes: 1) help supercoil DNA: making chromosomes shorter & fatter for mitosis/meiosis. 2) help regulate transcription

Data-based Questions: Chargaff’s data
1) In the base composition of the eukaryotes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, guanine and cytosine are more present than adenine and thymine.
2) A+T= 50       C+G= 50      50:50 = 1
3) Since the ratio is 1, there are equal amounts of A,T,C, & G in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This can be seen in the data.
4) Bases are complementary, therefore A has to be paired with T, and C has to be paired with G.
5) These two sources of DNA, may be double stranded instead of single stranded. Also, they may be RNA.

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Economics in pictures

For this assignment, I went to a convenient store near my house, called Co-op. This store has almost everything, from fruits to tissue paper, and some clothing. There are two floors, and the first floor is mainly groceries. The second floor are snacks, etc. I did not get the opportunity to take pictures of the  upper floor, since they asked me to put away the camera once they realized I was photographing.
This is the entrance:

On the outside of the store, there are stands, showing what there are discounts on, and the items on sale. This is bright, big font and red, which attracts costumers. The entrance is to the left of the store, this way the costumers have to go through, or pass all the aisles before reaching the cashier. Once I entered Co-op, there were these yogurt, for a cheap price. I stood at the corner for a while, to see if costumers went up to observe or pick up the product. Almost all of the costumers went to look at it, and 3/5 people picked up a product. Also, there was a cigarette vending machine, which is very famous among Japanese people.

A little further from the entrance, there were fresh fruits and vegetables, with big signs that showed the price. These are perishable goods, so it is important that they are bought by costumers before they become bad.

In one of the aisles, there were dairy products, like cheese, yogurts, milk, and other drinks such as soft drinks and tea. These products have a lot of substitutes, within the product, such as the companies that produce milk or yogurt. These are both inelastic goods, but the milk is more inelastic.

Along the ends of the store, there was all types of meat, and seafood. As you can see in the photograph, there are many signs that were showing the cheaper prices, this attracts the costumers.

 

At the end of the floor, near the cashier, these snacks were displayed. These are mini salads, bread, donuts, japanese snacks, and gum. These items are kept at the end because after all of the hectic shopping and decision making, the costumer needs something to re-energize themselves. So, they will consider buying gum, or snacks Also, Co-op does not provide plastic bags, so each bag costs 5yen. They could be not providing plastic bags trying to decrease the use of plastic bags, and helping the environment.

7.6b Enzymes

 Activation energy and enzymes
– chemical reactions are not single-step processes
– substrates pass through a transition state before they are converted into products
– energy is required to reach the transition state
– energy is released in going from the transition state to the product
– activation energy: energy must be put in to reach the transition state
– activation energy: used to break or weaken bonds in substrate
– substrate binds to the active site when an enzyme catalyzes a reaction
– they are converted to products, which separate from the active site
– activation energy of the reaction is released
– net amount of energy is reduced and the rate of the reaction is greatly increased, by a million or so.

The induced-fit model
– the structure and the shape of the active sites and substrates have shown that they don’t exactly fit, even though they are complementary
– binding still does happen
– according to the induced-fit model: when the substrate binds, they cause the structure of the active site to change, so that it fits the substrate
– so in this process, the substrate and active site go though alteration
– through the alteration, the bonds weaken or break in the substrate
– therefore, this lowers the activation energy and catalyze the reactions
– the induced-fit model allows enzymes to catalyze several different interactions
– to do this, different substrates must be able to bind the active site
– similar to the lock and key model
– ex: hexokinase: it can phosphorylate different hexoses, and glucose

Enzyme inhibition
– inhibitors: some substances bind to enzymes and reduce the activity
– competitive inhibitors: sulfadiazine
– non-competitive inhibitors: xylitol-5-phosphate

Metabolic pathways
– metabolism: chemical changes that take place in living cells
– common patterns of metabolism:
1) metabolic pathways: most chemical changes happen in a sequence of small steps
2) chain of reactions: reaction chain that is used by cells to convert
3) cycle
– allosteric interactions: many enzymes are regulated by chemical substances that bind to special sites on the enzyme form the active site
– allosteric site: binding site
– enzyme that is regulated catalyzes one of the first reactions on a metabolic pathway, and the substance that binds to the allosteric site is the end-product of the pathway
– the end product acts as an inhibitor
– the pathway works rapidly in cells with a shortage of end-product, but it can be switched off in cells where there is an excess
– if the concentration of products increase, a reaction will eventually slow down and stop
– this effect vibrates back through a metabolic pathway when the end-product is collected
– the end product inhibition prevents this build-up of intermediate products

I accidentally did the chapter questions, thinking it was the DBQ.

Chapter 7 questions
1a(i) As the temperature increases, the percent of digested decreases. This is because heat causes the enzyme to denature.
1a(ii) Heat causes the enzymes to change structure and weakens or breaks bonds. Therefore, the substrate does not fit into the active as it previously did.
1b(i) The temperature increases causes both papain to decrease in digestion. However, immobilized papain was effected later on than the dissolved papain.
1b(ii) Since the immobilized papain is immobilized and unable to move around, it is less likely to get worn out before the dissolved papain does, since it is active.
1b(iii) ************************************************************
2a) Curve B represents the concentration of the substrate.
2b(i) As the concentration decreased, the activity of the enzyme increased. At first, it was linear, but started to slow down.
2b(ii) As the concentration of the substrate decreased, the enzyme activity increased.
3a) Metabolic pathways: chemical changes happen in a sequence of small steps
3b(i) PYR increased in concentration the most
3b(ii) FDP decreased in concentration the most
3b(iii) PEP did not change in concentration
3c(i) Since there is a huge increase increase in PYR, it is the metabolic pathway.
3c(ii) The enzyme will catalyze FDP, since the percentage of concentration is the lowest.
4a) Cells need to have many enzymes in the cytoplasm because many reactions happen or are catalyzed in the cytoplasm.
4b) Different chemicals are catalyzed by different enzymes since there are different active sites and substrates, that are many to only fit each other.
4c) competitive inhibitors is sulfadiazine where are non-competitive inhibitors is xylitol-5-phosphate. Inhibitors are some substances bind to enzymes and reduce the activity
5a)************************************************************
5b)************************************************************
5c) The lock and key model and the induced-fit model allows the substrate fit comfortably into the active site. The induced-fit model, when the substrates bind, they cause the structure the structure of the active site to change, so that it fits the substrates. The structure of the substrates is also altered into the transition site. The substrates and active site are changed during binding. In the lock and key model, the substrate or the active site do not need to be altered. The active site and the substrate fit perfectly in the lock and key model.

Data-based questions: the effectiveness of enzymes
1) OMP decarboxylase catalyzes the reaction with the slowest rate in the absence of an enzyme.
2) OMP decarboxylase catalyzes its reaction at the most rapid rate.
3) Ketosteriod isomerase’s ratio: 3.8 x 10^11
Nuclease’s ratio: 5.6 x 10^19
OMP decarboxylase’s ratio: 1.4 x 10^24
4) OMP decarboxylase is the slowest to catalyze reactions without an enzyme, and the fastest with an enzyme present, therefore, it is the most effective.
5) When an enzyme catalyzes a reaction, the substrate binds to the active site and is altered to reach the transition stage.

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CHAPTER 6 PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Market failure: any situation where the allocation of resources by a free market is not efficient
– markets function quite well if left free and competitive
– market failure can be improved if resources were allocated differently
– market failure is usually associated with market power, asymmetrical information, and externalities
Externality: transaction where someone (third party) other than the buyer or the seller experiences a benefit or loss as a result of the transaction
*transaction: an instance of buying or selling something
Types of market failure:
– negative externalities
– positive externalities
– lack of public goods
– common access to resources and threat to sustainability
– asymmetric information
– abuse of monopoly power
Marginal social benefit: all the utility or benefit derived from the use of a good, including benefits to the consumer and the rest of society
Marginal private benefit: benefit derived exclusively by the consumer of a good
Marginal social cost: all the cost incurred from the production or use of a good, including costs to the producers and the rest of society
Marginal private benefit: costs of a good suffered solely by the producer
Merit good: marginal social benefit exceed marginal social costs when sold on the open market
Public good: good that is non rivalrous and non- excludible, and is typically provided by the government
Demerit good: good in which the marginal social costs exceed the marginal social benefits when sold on the open market
Tradable permit scheme: system for taxing pollution levels where pollution licenses are exchangeable between firms on a secondary market
Monopoly power: power of a firm to raise the prices above the prices of competitors

1a) Using the concept of market failure, explain how negative externalities are a type of market failure

Market failure is defined as any situation where the allocation of resources by a free market is not efficient. Externalities are  transactions where someone (third party) other than the buyer or the seller experiences a benefit or loss as a result of the transaction. Negative externalities are a type of market failure.


When an externality occurs, there’s a difference between society’s experience and that of a individual firm or consumer.
Negative production externalities are when third parties have problems, and suffer from lost money to poor health. Examples of these externalities wood particle board, coal and oil. Coal causes contributes largely to air pollution, and also causes a lot of deaths in the mines. Oil also causes air pollution, and is also getting more expensive.

This is representing negative production externalities with a supply and demand diagram. Marginal private cost represents the supply curve: cost paid by the firm to produce. Marginal social cost shows the cost suffered by other: higher than the private cost.

Negative consumption externalities is when the demand side where the cost occurs. Marginal social benefits are less then the benefits enjoyed by the individual consumer. Examples are smoking, alcohol consumption, gambling, etc.

1b) Evaluate the measures that a government might adopt to correct market failure arising from negative externalities

The potential measures a government might adopt to correct a market failure from negative externalities are legislation, regulation, taxation, advertising and persuasion. Governments can ban the consumption  and usage of some items, such as alcohol. This attempts to reduce costs. Taxing a product or consumer helps pay costs to society rather than the third party. Taxation causes the MPC to shift to the left. Advertising the negative affects, and persuading consumers to change their behavior is another method governments could use.

3.6 & 7.6 Enzymes

Enzymes
– enzymes are globular proteins that work as catalysts
– they speed up chemical reactions without being altered themselves
– enzymes are often called biochemical reactions because they are made my living cells and speed up biochemical reactions
– substances: enzymes convert into products in these reactions
– equation for enzymes-catalysted reaction: substrate —enzyme—> product
– enzymes are found in all living cells and are secreted by some cells to work outside
– living organisms produce many (thousands) different enzymes
– enzymes-substrate specificity: a typical enzyme will therefore only work on the substrates used in one reaction
– active site: substrate binding to a special region on the surface of the enzyme; we must look at the mechanism by which enzymes catalyze reactions
– the shape and chemical properties of the active site and the substrate match each other
– this allows the substrate to bind, but not other substances
– substrates are converted into products are then released, freeing the active side to catalyze another reaction
– lock and key model: match between the enzyme’s active site and the substrate has been likened to the fitting of a key into a lock; other keys will not fit

Effect of pH on enzyme activity
 pH scale is logarithmic
– acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measure on the pH scale
– the lower the pH, the more acid/less alkaline in a solution (higher hydrogen ions concentration)
– acidity is due to the presence of hydrogen ions
– reducing the pH by one unit makes a solution 10 times more acidic
– solution of pH 7 is neutral
– solution of pH 6 is slightly acidic
– solution of pH 5 is ten times more acidic than pH 6
– solution of pH 4 is one hundred times more acidic than ph 6
– enzymes are sensitive to pH
– most enzymes have an optimum pH at which their activity is highest
– if the pH increases or decreases, enzymes activity decreases of decreases
– when the hydrogen ion concentration is higher or lower than the natural level the enzyme works at, the structure of the enzyme is altered, the active site too
– denaturation: beyond a certain pH the structure of the enzyme is irreversibly altered
– enzymes do not all have the same pH (wide range), reflects the wide of range pH environments in which enzymes work

Effect of temperature on enzyme activity
– liquids: particles are in the continual random motion
– when a liquid is heated, particles are given more kinetic energy
– enzyme and substrate molecules move around faster at a higher temperatures and the chance of a substrate molecule colliding with the active side of the enzyme is increased
– enzymes activity increases
– when enzymes are heated: bonds in the enzymes vibrate more and the chance of bonds breaking is increased
– when bonds in enzymes break, structure of the enzyme changes, including the active site (denaturation)
– when an enzymes are been denatured, it is no longer able to catalyze reactions
– furthermore, enzyme activity fails
– eventually it stops altogether, when the enzyme has been completely denatured

Enzymes and substrate concentrations
– enzymes cannot catalyze reactions until the substrate binds to the active side
– this occurs because of the random movement of molecules in liquid that result in collisions between substrates and active sites
– if the concentration of substrates is increased in a solution with a fixed concentration of enzyme, substrate-active side collisions will take place more frequently and the rate at which enzyme catalyzes it’s reaction increases
– after the binding of a substrate of a substance to an active side, the active site is occupied and and unavailable to other substrate molecules until products have been formed and released from the active site
– as the substrate concentration rises, more and more of the active site are occupied

Using lactase to produce lactose-reduced milk
– lactose is the sugar that is naturally present in milk
– can be converted to glucose and galactose by the enzyme lactase:
lactose —-lactase—> glucose + galactose
– lactase if obtained from a type of yeast that grows naturally in milk

Data-based Questions: biosynthesis of glycogen
1) Two different enzymes are needed for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose phosphate because on enzyme is synthesizing the 1->4 bond and the other is synthesizing the 1->6 bond.
2) After the bonds have been synthesized, the enzymes can come together and form a chain.
3) Curve A is obtained using heat-treated enzymes. When enzymes are heated, bonds in the enzymes vibrate more and the chance of breaking bonds has increased. When bonds in the enzymes break, structure of the enzyme changed, including the active site. When enzymes are denatured, it is no longer able to catalyze reactions. Therefore, enzyme activity fails, and eventually stops.
4a) In curve B, the percentage of conversion increases greatly after 20 minutes.
4b)In curve B, as the time increases, the percentage of conversion increases much more rapidly compared to curve A. After around 35 minutes, the curve starts to slow down, because there is a limited amount of available enzymes, therefore the conversion percent of glucose slows down.

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3.2 & 7.5 Proteins


Amino Acids & Proteins

– peptide bond: the bond between two amino acids in a dipeptide
– amino acids join together through condensation reactions
– amino acids separate from each other through hydrolysis

Fibrous  proteins

– elongated shapes
– insoluble in water
– physically tough
– ex: collagen, keratin

Globular proteins

– compact
– rounded
– water- soluble
– ex: enzymes
– correlated with amino acids (since they are formed by amino acids)
– proteins are water soluble when the amino acid on the outer surface is polar
– distribution of polar and non-polar amino acids on the membrane surface controls their position
– channel proteins that allow facilitated diffusion or ions/polar molecules have polar amino acids lining the power through which the particles diffuse
– amino acids forming the active site of an enzyme determine the specificity of the enzyme

Primary & secondary structure of proteins

– polypeptide: chain of amino acids
– huge diversity of proteins
– sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is called its primary structure

– the chain of amino acids in a polypeptide has polar covalent bonds in it’s backbone therefore is folds in a way that allows hydrogen bonds to form between carbon and oxygen (carboxyl) and between nitrogen and hydrogen
– this pattern is called secondary structure
– ex: ax-helix, b-pleated sheet

Tertiary structure of proteins

– three dimensional shape
– this is a result of the interaction of R-groups
types of interaction:
– positively charged R-groups interact with negatively charged R-groups
– hydrophobic amino acids organize themselves towards the center of the polypeptide to avoid water, and hydrophilic amino acids will face outwards
– polar R-groups form hydrogen bonds with other polar R-groups
– disulfide bridge: the R-group of the amino acids cysteine can form a covalent bond with the R-group of another cysteine forming

Quaternary structure of proteins

– quaternary structure refers to the way polypeptides fit together when there is more than one chain and also the addition of non-polypeptide components
– proteins can be formed from a single or more polypeptide chains
– lysozyme is composed of a single chain so it’s both a polypeptide and a protein
– insulin is formed from two polypeptide chains
– hemoglobin is formed by two polypeptide chains

Chapter 4 questions

1a.) Polypeptide is a chain of amino acids, whereas a protein is made up of one or more chains of polypeptide.
1b.) Fat and oil are both triglycerides. Fat is solid at room temperature where as oil is liquid.
1c.) Starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose. Starch is found in plants where as glycogen is found in animals.
1d.) Condensation joins two or more molecules, and hydrolysis is the opposite. Hydrolysis breaks the bond in a larger molecule resulting in smaller sections
1e.) Something that is hydrophobic repels water whereas hydrophilic substances attract/like water.
2a.) maltose and water = two glucose molecules
2b.) 3 fatty acids and glycerol = triglyceride and 3 water molecules
2c.) starch and water = starch and glucose
3.) Transparency of water is important for plants to filter light into their habitat, and allows them to go through photosynthesis.
4a.) epsilon-globin and zeta-globin subunits are present in highest amount early in gestation
4b.) Both beta-globin and gamma-globin gene do not increase/or are used at the same duration. But, as gamma-globin starts to decrease, beta-globin increases.
4c.) At 10 weeks, hemoglobin is only composed of alpha-globin and gamma-globin. At 6 months, hemoglobin is composed of alpha-globin, epsilon-globin, and delta-globin.
4d.) umbilical cord   (?)
4e.) The change in hemoglobin type can be a result of a different change of source oxygen.
6a.) Examples of secondary structure or a protein: ax-helix, b-pleated sheet
6b.) Fibrous proteins are elongated, insoluble in water and physically tough. Collagen and keratin are examples of this type of protein. Globular proteins are compact, rounded and water-soluble. An example is enzymes.
6c.) Amino acids that are polar organize themselves towards the water. Polar amino acids are found in the membranes surface, and also in the membrane lining.
6d.)  Secondary structure is a pattern of the chain of amino acids in a polypeptide has polar covalent bonds in it’s backbone therefore is folds in a way that allows hydrogen bonds to form between carbon and oxygen (carboxyl) and between nitrogen and hydrogen. Examples are ax-helix, b-pleated sheet. Tertiary structures of proteins are three dimensional, caused by the interactions of R-groups.
7a.) As the quantity of water at time of sowing increases, the % of grain protein decreases.
7b.) This relationship exists because after a certain point, the water is not as efficient and helpful to the grain protein %.
8.) When the lipase breaks down the triglyceride, it results in fatty acids, which further affects the pH level.

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3.2 Organic Molecules

Organic Molecules

– the chemistry of living things is based on carbon

– any molecule that contains carbon is organic

– (not organic) exceptions: CO, CO2, CO3, CO3 2-, & HCO3-

– structural formulas show all of the atoms found in a compound and the way in which the atoms are bound to each other

– covalent bond = represented by a straight line

– in a condensed structural formula, the bonds between hydrogen and other atoms are often omitted because their positions are easy to predict

– macromolecules are large molecules: resulting from assembling lang chains of repeating subunits, called monomers

– nucleic acid RNA is made up of a long chain of individual nucleotides

– polypeptide is made up of a long chain of amino acids

Carbohydrates

– characterized by their composition: composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

– represented in the ratio 2H:1O

– monomers (subunits) of carbohydrates are called monosaccharides

– monosaccharides are ribose, fructose, and glucose

– maltose is a disaccharide formed from two glucose molecules

– sucrose is formed from one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule

– lactose is formed from one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule

– carbohydrates with many monomers are polysaccharides

– starch, glycogen, and cellulose are polysaccharides

Condensation and hydrolysis

– monosaccharides, amino acids and nucleotides are subunits polysaccharides, polypeptides and nucleic acid

– these subunits combine by condensation

– to spilt bonds formed by condensation, water is added in a reaction called hydrolysis

– disaccharide can be spilt using water into two monosaccharides

condensation:

– loss of -OH from one molecules and -H from the other, together it forms H2O.

– involves combination of subunits and yields water

Lipids

– lipids are a broad category of molecules that includes steroids, waxes, fatty acids, and triglycerides

– triglycerides are fats if they are solid at room temperature, or oils if they are liquid at room temperature

– three fatty acids combine with one molecule of glycerol to form a triglyceride

– this results in three water molecule

– this is also a condensation reaction

– breakdown of triglycerides occurs by hydrolysis

– triglycerides can serve as insulation, energy storage (lipids & carbohydrates)

– lipids are used for long term energy storage

– lipids contain twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates

– carbohydrates are more soluble and are so much easier to transport

– they have a stronger impact on osmotic balance

Data- based Questions

a i) total mass loss 13.3
a ii) total mass loss is 16.2
b) the captive birds had more lipid content than the wild birds before, but both birds loose lipid content over the time period. The captive birds lost more lipid content than the wild birds.
c) Lipids can be used for energy storage, lipids contain twice as much energy than carbohydrates. Lipids may also help when the penguin needs to stay warm.

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CHAPTER 5

“The supply of government exceeds demand”

– tax is a charge, placed on an individual or form that is payable to the government under punishment of law

– indirect taxes are those taxes placed on good and services

– they are called indirect taxes because the government collects the revenue from the supplier after the supplier has collected them from the purchaser

– sales tax is collected by the seller and delivered to the government- indirect tax

Indirect tax:

– specific tax: the amount of tax is an absolute value

– charge a specific amount to be paid for every unit of a good sold

– in the initial effect of a per-unit tax, there is a parallel shift in the supply curve because the amount of the per-unit tax is the same no matter the price of quantity of units

– ad valorem: the amount of tax is a percentage of the sale, as value added tax (VAT)

– the higher the price of the good, the overall amount of the tax will increase

– the supply curve shifts upwards or left by the amount of tax, but the distance between S and S1 grows apart as the price increases

– reflects the increased amount of tax charged as the price increases

Effect of taxes: stakeholder consequences

– taxes raises prices: because taxes shift supply to the left, they will increase to equilibrium price of the product

– taxes reduce output: supply shifts left because of the increase costs

– market size shrinks: reduced output = reduced market size

– consumer suffer: consumers pay higher prices & received less of the product

– producer suffer: producers incur extra costs, produce less & are less likely to make profits

– government benefit: the taxes collected will increase government revenues

Subsidy: payment from the government to an individual or firm for the purpose of increasing the purchase or supple of a good

Government motivation:

– increase the consumption of some good by lowering the price

– support a particular industry with production costs (can be considered critical of economic security)

– address balance of payments deficit by increasing revenue, may lower costs enough to make a good more competitive on the world market

Subsidizing a product will cause the supply curve to shift right of downwards by the amount of the subsidy.

Price Ceiling: (maximum price) is a maximum legally allowable price of a good set by the goverment

Effects of price ceiling

– shortages

– rationing

– decreased market size

– elimination of allocative efficiency

– informal (black) market

Price Floor: (minimum price) is a minimum legally allowable price for a good, set by the government

Effects of price floor

– surplus

– reduced market size

– cost inefficiency

– allocative inefficiency

– informal markets

35)
36)
44)
46) Rent control is when the government regulates the amount being payed for a house. *incomplete*
3a) Maximum price is also known as price ceiling, and minimum price is also known as a price floor. A price ceiling is set by the government, allowing a maximum allowed price of a good. A price floor, also set by the government, is the least a consumer can legally pay for a price of a good.
3b)
*** this will be completed during fall break***