Task One: Imagine you work for the complaints department at Manchester City Council How would you explain to the driver of a car that was been damaged by raising bollards why the bollards had been installed in the CBD (Central Business District)?
We apologize for the inconvenience. Bollards have been installed in our publics areas to keep a distance between the pedestrians and the vehicles travelling on the road. In a crowded place such as Manchester City, it is strongly depended on for pedestrians to stay well. Bollards are necessary and need to remain in the CBD (Central Business District). In future travels, please refrain from reaching too close to the bollards, to prevent further accidents.
Task Two: Produce some notes on ‘Park and Ride Schemes’:
What are ‘Park and Ride Schemes’?
The park and ride scheme is an area where cars can be parked, and there available public transport for the citizens to travel on. These consist of buses, rail systems, etc.
How do they work?
People that wish to take the public transport will travel by their own car to the facility where a parking space will be available. Then, they will be able to ride the public transportation, and collect their car when they return from their trip. These facilities are usually located in the suburbs and outer areas of the city.
How do they reduce urban traffic congestion?
This system is an ideal way to avoid urban traffic congestion since there will be less vehicles on the road. The people can park their car in the park and ride facility instead of hunting for a parking at their destination. Also, it is a way for people to use public transportation.
Give detailed examples of a ‘Park and Ride’ scheme from one urban location.
Bangkok, Thailand’s Mass Rapid Transit is an example of ‘Park and Ride’ scheme. At each station, there is a building where all the cars are parked. There are a different amount of parking spaces at each station. In this scheme in Bangkok, there is a system where people sign up monthly. In the image below, the blue line is the MRT route.
Task Three: Print a copy of the news article ‘A year on, the cycle experiment has hit some bumps‘ and then with three different colors highlight the following:
Task Four: Produce a detailed case study of the Congestion Charges scheme in London, UK. By producing your case study you should develop your understanding of the following:
1. How the scheme actually works – how is money collected?, how are cars monitored?
Money is collected by vehicles when passing through certain areas in London. Cars are monitored by cameras placed at entrances and exits, which record your car plate number. Fines are charged if you are unable to pay in advance or before midnight that same day. “The daily charge is £10 if you pay in advance or on the day, but increases to £12 if payment is made by midnight on the following charging day.” – (AA, 2012)
2. The geographical scale of the scheme.
- reduces number of vehicles
- contribution to road mantainence
- encourages public transportation (benefits environment)
4. Any negative impacts about the scheme.
- may not be as effective as other options since people can take cabs, and other roads to get to their destination
- may hurt the people who have to pay economically
5. The future of the scheme.
Regarding the future, suggestions have been about the changing in price. Also, the use of GPS in the car as a better tracking system.
According to the image above, factories/industrial areas can also be called Wholesale Light Manufacturing.
An additional ring can also be called a.) a computer zone or b.) high class housing.
The difference between the Burgess model and the HOYT model is the lack of either a commuter zone or high class housing. Also, the Burgess model’s structure is rings, whereas the HOYT model has been separated and distributed unevenly.
The Burgess model is also known as concentric zone model. It was based on the idea of higher class at the ends, created by Ernest Burgess in 1924.
The HOYT model was created in 1939 by Homer Hoyt, who was an economist. “While accepting the existence of a central business district, Hoyt suggested that various groups expand outward from the city center along railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries. Using Chicago as a model, an upper class residential sector evolved outward along the desirable Lake Michigan shoreline north of the central business district, while industry extended southward in sectors that followed railroad lines.” He tried to make the lower class residents live closer to the railroads, etc.
In which area are you most likely to:
- Get your car stolen
(low class residential)
The population that lives here does not have a high income which does not allow them to financially own a car, therefore, they are likely to steal other peoples cars.
- See a fox at night
This area is near nature, which could lead to animals to come into the area.
- See a porche car
(high class residential)
The people living in this area, are very financially fortunate and can afford vehicles such as a porche.
- have a school with good grades
(high class residential)
The high class residents have more money to spend on their children’s education, such as sending them to better schools.
- have complaints about noisy neighbors
(low class residents)
The lower class residents may have less of an awareness on the level of noise they might be creating. Also, their houses might not be so sound proof, so sound will be easily heard from neighboring houses.
- see empty McDonalds wrappers
(central business district, low and middle class residential)
McDonalds stores would be available at the central business district. Low and middle class residents are more likely to eat, and leave the wrappers out.
- buy milk at 10:30 at night
(central business district)
Stores are more likely to be open in the central business area.
- be able to catch a bus to visit friends anywhere
(central business district)
The central business district would have means of transportation to all places.
- see a police car with it’s blue lights flashing
(central business district, low class residential)
Police cars will be in the CBD since it is a busy place, with all kinds of people. Police cars will be in low class residential since the crime rate is high in those areas.
- be able to buy drugs?
Illegal drugs can be found in the CBD and low residential areas. Prescription drugs are found in hospitals which are usually placed in middle and high class areas.
There are major differences in the structure of the land in LEDC areas and MEDC areas. The way the different parts of an area were placed were significantly different, in the LEDC area, the high costing houses and the industry were separate from the rings. Most areas in India were/are structured in random orders and places, not having a plan. The buildings are not close together, nor are they tall, which becomes inefficient. In a place like Japan, every building was intensely prepared for, keeping buildings tall and together, therefore saving space.
Articles on Italy:
Italy has an aging population, which causes the society to be pressured. An aging population has a fewer population collecting income. It would be easy to conclude that the population in this village has no interest in having and raising children, and they move ahead slowly. In the first article, it stated that a couple had been engaged for 20 years. Comparing this to India, a country with a booming population, in most situations: two people are introduced (often by parents), they are married within six months, and a child is usually born a year or two after. According to Italian village’s mayor hopes tax on singles leads to babies, ”Funerals in the village outnumber weddings by 3 to 1. There is no secondary school, not enough children to fill the primary school and the kindergarten will close within three years unless more babies are born. One was born last year, none this year.” In a different article, the problem why the birth rate was declining is 1.) the discrimination against women who put a halt to their career for children and 2.) the high expenses that nurseries & a shortage of houses for the young population.
Many proposals have been given to the public to alter this issue. Fees up to 1000 euros have been given to mothers to help costs with their second baby only. This helps with paying for a new home, and paying for nurseries when required. Also, the government thought of paying women who did not have abortions, and kept the child instead. The mayor of the village Vastogirardi proposed a tax on all the single adults in this village. The people are not motivated or threatened by this act.
- alzheimer’s and dementia costing UK $7B/year
- more general problems in alzheimer’s
- alzheimer’s big unresolved issue
- 48% of UK earning
- 48% earns for the rest too
- public basically funds NHS, charities
Aging Population - population moving toward older ages
Population Policy - measures taken by a state to influence the way its population is changing
Pro-natalist – a strong request by high authority for a higher birth rate
Pension - a fixed amount, unlike wages, paid at regular intervals to a retired person inconsideration of past services, age, merit, poverty, injury or loss sustained.
Taxes - a sum of money demanded by a government for its supporter for specific facilities or services
Retirement - the portion of a person’s life during which a person is retired.
Name four European countries that are projected to experience population decline by 2031:
Name four European countries that are predicted to have population growth over 20%.
List as many consequences as you can of a country having an aging population. Try to categorize the consequences as being social, economic or political.
- fewer children
- higher death rate
- higher demand for jobs
- decreasing demand for supplies such as food
- world will not continue to rapidly advance in technology
- younger generation will have to take serious action and make changes themselves
- government spending more on people
- increased price for health care
- flow of money will not be stable
- supply and demand will shift for goods and services
- higher taxes
- government will have to take better care of the population, to sustain and increase the population
- spending more on health care
Four step plan:
- Insure couples with money to take care of their child. This can be done with higher income from their jobs or handed checks. Possibly yearly checks to see that the money is not stored away, but used to take excellent care of the child/ren.
- Ban birth control pills and abortion. This will increase the chance of conceiving a child and gives a greater chance of the child being kept by the parents. Also, adopting a child should be more promoted to the public, as it gives a child a chance to get greater opportunities.
- Increase retirement age. This keeps more of the population working, helping their countries economy.
- Insure an easy and care-free retirement. This will force the young population to spend money on children rather than saving up for a smooth retirement.
“Japan is ageing faster than any other nation. By the end of this decade, there will be three pensioners for every child under 15 and before long, one in six people will be over 80. Its population will soon be falling by nearly a million people every year and doomsters predict that, some time in the next century, the last Japanese person will die.” To cope with this issue, the Japanese have created interesting software which keeps the elderly healthy and mentally active. They have invented toilets which summarize your intake and give advice to make your diet healthier. This will keep the elderly healthy, and will possibly keep them awake from illness. The newly designed cars and the artistic hobbies keep their brain functioning and not slowing them down. The beds that turn into wheelchairs also make the elderly peoples lives much easier.
How fast is the world’s population increasing? What are the components of the increase?
There is a new baby given birth to around every thirty seconds. Fertility rates, death rates, and such are components of this increase.
This graph shows, compares the growth in the more developed countries to the less developed countries. It shows that the more developed countries have sustained their population while the developing have rapidly increasing, and will continue to increase.
The less developed countries and developing faster, increasing growth in aspects such as GDP, life expectancy, births, and such. In todays date, there are more births than deaths, the population increases instead of staying sustained or decreasing.
The more developed countries population is being sustained, and slightly decreasing in some regions, such as Japan, and Italy. This is because there are more deaths than there are births.
A lot has changed in the population growth around the world. Asia, though has continued to lead. Oceania has grown by 0.3%, Africa has grown by approximately 9%, North America has grown approximately 4%, Latin America has grown approximately 7% and Europe has decreased by approximately 13%. North America has a boost in population in 1900, similar to Europe. North America fell by a little, while Europe decreased it population by a lot. Oceania has steady grown, but because of it’s location (small islands), the population would not increase by too much.
During Thursdays class, we walked to the ocean to look at the types of coastal defenses applied. We saw two types, the sea wall and rock defense (rip-rap). The sea was was included twice, as there was one further out into the sea. I would guess this would be to halt the occurring tsunamis at the distance. The sea wall closer to the rocks tries to prevent the water from entering the land of Rokko Island. The rip-rap prevents water erosion, protecting the shoreline.
Difference between two earthquakes:
The first picture:
- structures have collapsed and crushed
The second picture:
- structures have moved side to side
- highways have broken
There is an obvious difference in the two picture, as the first on is a developing country and the second is a developed country.
Development is the continous improvement in the standard of living and the quality of life of the people in the country. This includes: social and economical development.
The Development Pathway:
LLEDC: Least less economically developed country
- Ethiopia, Nepal
LEDC: Less economically developed country
- Morocco, Bangaladesh
RIC: Recently developed country
- Thailand, Chile
OPEC: Oil and petroleum exporting country
- Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
NIC: Newly industrialized country
- South Korea, Portugal
MEDC: More economically developed country
- France, USA
To Think About:
Which country is the most developed?
The most developed country is one that has equal rights, proper enforcement of laws, a stable government, high literacy rate, and such.
Which is the least developed country?
The least developed country has a corrupt government, high crime rate, improper enforcement of laws, low literacy rate, and such.
How do we measure development?
Equal rights, proper enforcement of laws, a stable government, high literacy rate, and such is how development can be measured.
“The HDI is a summary composite index that measures a country’s average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Health is measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge is measured by a combination of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio; and standard of living by GDP per capita (PPP US$).”
Development & Death Toll
Do you think there a link between the level of development of a country and the death toll from an earthquake? Fully explain your answer.
I think there is a link between the level of development of a country and the death toll as it is clearly displayed in the table. First, Japan has an HDI value of 12 and Italy’s HDI value is 24. They both were struck with earthquakes with earthquakes from 6.0-6.6 on the richter scale. In 2004, Japan only had a death toll of 40, and in 2009, Italy has a death toll if 294. Their magnitudes were not so far apart. The same situation was presented with Mexico and Pakistan. In 1999, Mexico was struck with an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.4, and it’s death toll was 15. In 2005, Pakistan was hit with an earthquake, magnitude of 7.6 and the death toll was 87,350.
What other factors do you think may influence the death toll from an earthquake?
The epicenter is one factor that can influence the death toll from an earthquake. If the epicenter, the death toll will be much higher that it is a sea, but, a tsunami may form. Wealth of a country relates to the types of structures the country has. Japan, a developed and earthquake prone country has designed buildings to be earthquake proof. But, Haiti for example, did not have strong structures, which caused the death toll to be so high. Aftershocks also affect the death toll. Time of day affects the death toll. If the earthquakes strikes at a time where everyone is out of the house, or sleeping, people are more likely to be affected.
Draw a sketch map of Somalia and the surrounding area:
Describe the location of ‘Actual Attacks’ to the north and east of Somalia:
The actual attacks take plan at the Horn of Africa, towards the Gulf of Aden. One example of this is, is when Somali pirate shot a ‘rocket-propelled grenade’ at four Americans and killed them all. This was not the first time something of this sort occurred.
Most recent act of piracy off the coast of Somalia or in the Gulf of Aden?:
On February 22, 2012, at 11:30 UTC:
A pirate attack took place in the Gulf of Aden (Position: 13:30N – 050:22E). A tanker underway saw a skiff (a flat bottomed open boat) at 1.6nm approaching at around 20knots, and a suspicious looking dhow was sighted, so the master sent distress to navies and informed UKMTO. As the skiff came closer, he sighted weapons and so the security team onboard fired a warning shot. Following this the pirates immediately fired upon the tanker with AK-47. The pirates shot 50-60 rounds of fire, then aborted and moved away. A naval helicopter was dispatched.
What are the boats called that the pirates are using?:
The boat the pirates are using is called a skiff. A skiff is a shallow boat with a flat bottom.
What weapons are the pirates using?:
The pirates are using a AK-47. This is a type of rifle.
How much did pirate gangs earn in 2008?:
In 2008 the pirate gangs earned around £35m. This was attained by ‘holding scores of ships and hundreds of crew members to ransom.’
Who do a ship’s owners usually contact when they find that one of their vessels has
The first person a ship owner would call is a lawyer whom works at a firm is one of the few that deals with kidnaps and ransoms at sea.
Is paying a ransom illegal under British law?:
Paying ransom is not illegal under British law unless it is directed to terrorists. Somali pirates are only after money and have no terrorist-like motives.
How long does the average hijack last?:
A hijack lasts around two months, until the ransom is paid.
Is piracy purely criminal or is there more to it?:
Specialists strongly believed that the pirates motives were purely criminal enterprise, but Bruno Schiemsky, a Kenyan arms analyst, believes that the pirates are connected with the al-Shabab, an Islamic group.
What are the pirates doing with their money?:
It is believed that the pirates pay up to 50% of the ransoms to al-Shabab, an Islamic group.
What businesses have been set up in the pirate’s ‘boomtowns’?:
The businesses set up the pirate’s ‘boomtowns’ are things such as: telephones shops, internet cafes, and clothing stores.
Name important settlements in the Somali pirate industry?:
Hardware and Eyl are the important settlements in the Somali pirate industry.
What do the local people feel about the pirates?:
The local citizens do not like pirates since they are taking over their community. They think that the pirates bring nothing but trouble and endanger their children.
Why can’t the local authorities do much about the pirates?:
The local authorities have no money or the equipment to face the pirates.
Why have people turned to piracy?:
People turn to piracy because the income is higher than what they usually earn. People just want to earn money to live a better life.
What is the life expectancy in Somalia?:
total population: 50.8 years
What is the total infant mortality rate?:
total: 103.72 deaths/1,000 live births
What is the literacy rate?:
total population: 37.8%
Who has ‘reliable information’ that European and Asian companies are dumping toxic waste, including nuclear waste, off the Somali coastline?:
“Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, the UN envoy for Somalia confirmed to Al Jazeera the world body has “reliable information” that European and Asian companies are dumping toxic waste, including nuclear waste, off the Somali coastline.”
How is the 2004 South Asian Tsunami linked to the situation?:
The 2004 South Asian Tsunami also pushed a lot of toxic waste onto the shores and into the ocean.
How is a lack of government linked to a lack of fish?:
The government is unable to properly take care of the country’s coastline and the fish it once had. Foreign countries have also come to take fish out of their coast.
The most obvious reason for the pirates, are the chase for a better life, with better quality. The government is poor and the country is not developing steadily. The population of Somalia should have the necessary items such as clean water, food, and education in order for the country to grow economically.
Brainstorm why you think that coastal areas are so important.
Coasts are important:
-to get fresh water
-means of transportation
-open area to inport & export
-a lot of life is growing there (algae, fish)
A coast is the land next to or close to the sea (Cambridge Dictionary)
Here is the link to google maps